# A Neighborhood of Infinity

## Saturday, July 23, 2011

> {-# LANGUAGE TypeSynonymInstances, RankNTypes, ExistentialQuantification #-}


Introduction
When I wrote about coends a while back I made up a term 'difunctor'. More recently it was pointed out to me that the correct word for this concept is 'profunctor', but unfortunately my knowledge came from MacLane which mentions that word nowhere.

Profunctors are ubiquitous in Haskell programming. Probably the most natural definition of Hughes Arrows is via profunctors. Profunctors also play a role a little like tensors leading to a use of the terms 'covariant' and 'contravariant' that looks remarkably like the way those terms are used in tensor calculus.

For categories C and D, A profunctor is a functor Dop×C→Set and is written C↛D. (I hope that arrow between C and D is in your font. It's missing on iOS.)

I'll reuse my Haskell approximation to that definition:

> class Profunctor h where
>   lmap :: (d' -> d) -> h d c -> h d' c
>   rmap :: (c -> c') -> h d c -> h d c'


We need cofunctoriality for the first argument and functoriality for the second:

lmap (f . g) == lmap g . lmap f
rmap (f . g) == rmap f . rmap g


(Strictly we probably ought to call these 'endoprofunctors' as we're only really dealing with the category of Haskell types and functions.)

There are lots of analogies for thinking about profunctors. For example, some people think of them as generalising functors in the same way that relations generalise functions. More specifically, given a function f:A→B, f associates to each element of A, a single element of B. But if we want f to associate elements of A with elements of B more freely, for example 'mapping' elements of A to multiple elements of B then we instead use a relation which can be written as a function f:A×B→{0,1} where we say xfy iff f(x,y)=1. In this case, profunctors map to Set rather than {0,1}.

A good example is the type constructor (->)

> instance Profunctor (->) where
>   lmap f g = g . f
>   rmap f g = f . g


It's common that the first argument of a profunctor describes how an element related to a type is sucked in, and the second describes what is spit out. a -> b sucks in an a and spits out a b.

Given a function f we can turn it into a relation by saying that xfy iff y=f(x). Similarly we can turn a functor into a profunctor. Given a functor F:C→D we can define a profunctor F*:C↛D by

> data UpStar f d c = UpStar (d -> f c)
> instance Functor f => Profunctor (UpStar f) where
>   lmap k (UpStar f) = UpStar (f . k)
>   rmap k (UpStar f) = UpStar (fmap k . f)


You may be able to see how the second argument to a profunctor sort of plays a similar role to the return value of a functor, just as the second argument to a relation sometimes plays a rule similar to the return value of a function.

There also an opoosing way to make a profunctor from a functor just as there is with functions and relations:

> data DownStar f d c = DownStar (f d -> c)
> instance Functor f => Profunctor (DownStar f) where
>   lmap k (DownStar f) = DownStar (f . fmap k)
>   rmap k (DownStar f) = DownStar (k . f)


Note that the identity functor gives us something isomorphic to (->) whether you use UpStar or DownStar.

Dinatural transformations
Just as we have natural transformations between functors, we have dinatural transformations between profunctors. My previous definition of dinatural was specialised to a particular case - dinaturals between a profunctor and the constant profunctor.

Firstly, let's think about natural transformations. If F and G are functors, and h is a natural transformation h:F⇒G, then we have that
h . fmap f = fmap f . h

If we think of F and G as containers, then this rule says that a natural transformation relates the structures of the containers, not the contents. So using f to replace the elements with other elements should be invisible to h and hence commute with it.

Something similar happens with dinatural transformations. But this time, instead of relating the argument to a natural transformation to its return result, it instead relates the two arguments to a profunctor.

Given two profunctors, F and G, A dinatural transformation is a polymorphic function of type:

> type Dinatural f g = forall a. f a a -> g a a


but we also want something analogous to the case of natural transformations. We want to express the fact that if phi :: Dinatural F G, then phi doesn't see the elements of F a a or G a a. Here's a way to achieve this. Suppose we have a dinatural transformation:
phi :: Dinatural G F

and a function f :: X -> X' then we can use lmap to apply f on the left or right of F and G. The definition of dinaturals demands that:
rmap f . phi . lmap f = lmap f . phi . rmap f

ie. that we can apply f on the left before applying phi, and then do f on the right, or vice versa, and still get the same result.

I'm not sure but I think that we don't need to check this condition and that just like the case of naturals it just comes as a free theorem.

Composing profunctors
It's easy to see how to compose functors. A functor is a polymorphic function from one type to another. It's not straightforward to compose profunctors. It's tempting to say that a profunctor maps a pair of types to a type so they can be composed like functions. But the original definition says the definition is Dop×C→Set. So as a function it doesn't map back to the category but to Set. For Haskell we replace Set with Hask, the category of Haskell functions and types. So we have Haskop×Hask→Hask. It's easy invent a scheme to compose these because Hask appears 3 times. But it'd be wrong to exploit this in a general definition applying to many categories because in the proper definition of profunctor we can't assume that a profunctor maps back to the spaces you started with.

We can try composing profunctors by analogy with composing relations. Suppose R and S are relations. If T=S○R is the composition of R and S then xTz if and only if there exists a y such that xRy and ySz. If our relations are on finite sets then we can define T(x,z) = ΣyR(x,y)S(y,z) where we work in the semiring on {0,1} with 0+0=0, 0+1=1+0=1+1=1 but with the usual product.

There is an analogue of "there exists" in Haskell - the existential type. Remembering that we write Haskell existential types using forall we can define:

> data Compose f g d c = forall a.Compose (f d a) (g a c)


As mentioned above, functors give rise to profunctors. It'd be good if composition of functors were compatible with composition of profunctors. So consider
Compose (UpStar F) (UpStar G)

for some F and G. This is essentially the same as
exists a. (d -> F a, a -> G c)

What can we discover about an element of such a type? It consists of a pair of functions (f, g), but we can't ever extract the individual functions because the type of a has been erased. To get anything meaningful out of g we need to apply it to an a, but we don't have one immediately to hand, after all, we can't even know what a is. But we do have an F a if we can make a d. So we can use fmap to apply g to the result of a. So we can construct fmap g . f :: d -> F (G c). There is no other information we can obtain. So the composition is isomorphic to UpStar of the functorial composition of F and G. Again, we can probably make this a rigorous proof by making use of free theorems, but I haven't figured that out yet.

But there's a catch: I said I wanted a definition that applies to more categories than just Hask. Well we can replace exists a with the coend operator. We also implicitly used the product operation in the constructor Compose so this definition will work in categories with suitable products. Symmetric monodial categories in fact.

Under composition of profunctors, (->) is the identity. At least up to isomorphism. This composition of profunctors is also associative up to isomorphism. Unfortunately the "up to isomorphism" means that we can't make a category out of profunctors in the obvious way. But we can make a bicategory - essentially a category where we have to explicitly track the isomorphisms between things that are equal in ordinary categories.

Profunctors as tensors
Given a profunctor F we can write F i j suggestively as Fij. Let's write the composition of F and G as ∃k. Fik Gkj. We can use the Einstein summation convention to automatically 'contract' on pairs of upper and lower indices and write the composition as Fik Gkj. The analogy is even more intriguing when we remember that in tensor notation, the upper indices are covariant indices and the lower ones are contravariant indices. In the case of profunctors, the two arguments act like the arguments to covariant and contravariant functors respectively. Note alse that because (->) is essentially the identity, we have →ijFjk=Fik. So (->) acts like the Kronecker delta. You can read more about this at mathoverflow where it is hinted that this analogy is not yet well understood. Note that we're naturally led to the trace of a profunctor: exists a. F a a.

Arrows as profunctors
The last thing I want to mention is that Hughes' Arrows are profunctors. There is an intuition that fits. If A is an Arrow, we often think of A d c as consuming something related to type d and emitting something related to type c. The same goes for profunctors. The full paper explaining this is Asada and Hasuo's Categorifying Computations into Components via Arrows as Profunctors with the profunctorial definition of Arrows given as Definition 3.2 (though that definition also appears in some earlier papers.)

## Saturday, July 16, 2011

### The Infinitude of the Primes

Introduction

> import Data.List hiding (intersect)


A colleague at work reminded me of Fürstenberg's topological proof of the infinitude of primes. But as I tried to argue a while back, topology is really a kind of logic. So Fürstenberg's proof should unpack into a sort of logical proof. In fact, I'm going to unpack it into what I'll call the PLT proof of the infinitude of the primes. I apologise in advance that I'm just going to present the unpacked proof, and not how I got there from Fürstenberg's.

A small formal language
We're going to start with a little language. Propositions of this language are of type Prop:

> data Prop = Modulo Integer Integer


The intention is that Modulo k n is the property of an integer being equal to k modulo n. More precisely, it represents the property of being writable in the form sn+k for some s. (We disallow n=0.) But I also want to allow people to combine properties using "and" and "or". So we extend the language with:

>           | Or [Prop] | And [Prop] deriving Show


The intention now is that And ... holds when all of the properties in the list hold and similarly for Or .... We can write an interpreter to test whether integers have the specified property:

> eval (Modulo k n) x = (x-k) mod n == 0
> eval (Or ps)      x = or $map (\p -> eval p x) ps > eval (And ps) x = and$ map (\p -> eval p x) ps


(Note we limit ourselves to *finite* compositions of And and Or, otherwise eval wouldn't actually define a property due to non-termination.

There are lots of things we can say in our language. For example we can give the 'extreme' properties that are never true or always true:

> never = Or []
> always = And []


We can say that one number is divisible by another:

> divisibleBy k = Modulo 0 k


We can test it with expressions like:
*Main> eval (divisibleBy 3) 9
True
*Main> eval (divisibleBy 5) 11
False


We can also express non-divisibility. We say that n isn't divisble by k by saying that n is either 1, 2, ..., or k-1 modulo k:

> notDivisibleBy n =
>     let n' = abs n
>     in Or (map (\i -> Modulo i n') [1..(n'-1)])


(Disallowing n=0.)

*Main> eval (notDivisibleBy 3) 9
False


Eliminating And
It's not obvious at first sight, but there is a big redundancy in our language. There is no need for And. Consider And [Modulo k1 n1, Modulo k2 n2]. This asserts, for the number x, that x = s*n1+k1 and x = t*n2+k2. The Chinese remainder theorem tells us that either these have no solution, or that this pair of propositions is equivalent to one of the form x = k3 mod n3 for some k3 and n3. So every time we And a pair of propositions we can eliminate the And by using the theorem. Solving for k3 and n3 is straightforward. I use the extended Euclidean algorithm and the proof of the Chinese remainder theorem given at Cut the Knot.

> egcd n1 n2 | n2 == 0 = (1, 0, n1)
>            | n1 == 0 = (0, 1, n2)
>            | otherwise = (y, x-y*(n1 quot n2), g)
>            where (x, y, g) = egcd n2 (n1 mod n2)

> intersect (Modulo k1 n1) (Modulo k2 n2) =
>     let (s, _, g) = egcd n1 n2
>         (q, r) = (k2-k1) quotRem g
>     in if r == 0
>         then Modulo (q*s*n1+k1) (n1*n2 quot g)
>         else never


So now we can repeatedly use intersect pairwise on our properties to eliminate all uses of And. Here is some code to do so. Firstly, it's convenient to sometimes write any property as if it is a list of "subproperties", all Orred together:

> subproperties (Or ps) = ps
> subproperties p = [p]


Now we can go ahead and remove all of the Ands:

> removeAnd (Or ps) = Or (map removeAnd ps)


The property always can be rewritten as:

> removeAnd (And []) = Modulo 0 1


Remove And from the head of the list, remove it from the tail of the list, and then form all possible intersections of these two parts:

> removeAnd (And (p:ps)) = Or [q intersect q' |
>     q <- subproperties (removeAnd p),
>     q' <- subproperties (removeAnd (And ps))]
> removeAnd p = p


By induction, the return value from removeAnd can no longer contain an And. Note that the properties can grow in size considerably. Here is the proposition that x isn't divisble by 5 or 7 written out in full:
*Main> removeAnd (And [notDivisibleBy 5, notDivisibleBy 7])
Or [Modulo 1 35,Modulo 16 35,Modulo 31 35,Modulo 46 35,Modulo 61
35,Modulo 76 35,Modulo (-13) 35,Modulo 2 35,Modulo 17 35,Modulo 32
35,Modulo 47 35,Modulo 62 35,Modulo (-27) 35,Modulo (-12) 35,Modulo
3 35,Modulo 18 35,Modulo 33 35,Modulo 48 35,Modulo (-41) 35,Modulo
(-26) 35,Modulo (-11) 35,Modulo 4 35,Modulo 19 35,Modulo 34 35]


Now to the primes. Here's a standard way to make the list of primes in Haskell:

> isPrime primes n = foldr (\p r -> p*p > n || (rem n p /= 0 && r))
>                          True primes
> primes = 2 : filter (isPrime primes) [3..]


The Proof
Now we can give the proof this set is infinite. Suppose it were finite. Then we could form this property:

> prop = removeAnd $And (map notDivisibleBy primes)  It contains no Ands, and so must simply be the Or of a bunch of Modulos. But each Modulo defines an infinite set, so prop must define an infinite set. But prop is the property of not being divisible by any prime. So prop can only eval to True on -1 or 1, a finite set. Contradiction. Therefore primes is infinite. We can look at approximations to prop like this: > prop' n = removeAnd$ And (map notDivisibleBy (take n primes))


You can see that the proposition grows in size rapidly:
*Main> removeAnd (prop' 3)
Or [Modulo 1 30,Modulo (-83) 30,Modulo (-167) 30,Modulo (-251)
30,Modulo 71 30,Modulo (-13) 30,Modulo (-97) 30,Modulo (-181) 30]
*Main> removeAnd (prop' 4)
Or [Modulo 1 210,Modulo (-56159) 210,Modulo (-112319) 210,Modulo...]

Nonetheless, it would always be finite if there were only finitely many primes. As primes is infinite, you can think of the sequence prop' n as somehow trying to creep up on the set -1, 1, never quite getting there.

Unfortunately I have no time to explain why a topological proof should lead to one about a simple DSL beyond mentioning that there's a deeper story relating to the computability of eval for possibly infinite expressions of type Prop.