# A Neighborhood of Infinity

## Wednesday, November 28, 2007

### The IO Monad for People who Simply Don't Care

The theoretical underpinnings of monads in Haskell can be tricky to grasp. If you simply want to read some input and write some output, and you don't want to waste time with nonsense like the "monad laws", you've come to the right place.

### Getting Started

Many programming languages make a distinction between expressions and commands. For example, in BASIC you couldn't say LET A = PRINT 1 and in C you can't say x = if (a==1) { 2; } else { 3; }. Haskell is no different. Like other languages it makes the distinction, and like other languages it has its own slightly idiosyncratic notion of what the difference is. The IO monad is just a device to help make this distinction. And that's the last time I'll mention the word 'monad' for a while.

Here's an example of a Haskell function:
f x = 2*x+1

The right hand side is an expression. Expressions are made of subexpressions and the value of an expression is determined by the value of its subexpressions. There is no room for anything like a print command here because a print command doesn't return a value, it produces output as a side-effect. So in order to do I/O we need something different: the do keyword. It's easy to use: you just write do and then follow it by an indented list of commands. Here's a complete Haskell program:
main = do    print "Hello"    let x = 1+2+3+4+5    print "The answer is"    print (2*x)

Note the let. It's just like the old days of BASIC programming where you can use let to assign a name to a value. Note also that commands take arguments that can be expressions. So print (2*x) is a command, but 2*x is an expression. Again, little different from a language like Python.

But what about input? Haskell has a command called getLine that reads input from the user. So here's an interesting feature of Haskell: commands can return values. But a command that returns a value is different from an expression with a value. The difference means we have to write code like this:
main = do    print "Hello"    x <- getLine    print "The input was"    print x

We have to use <- instead of let ... = ... to get a returned value out of a command. It's a pretty simple rule, the only hassle is you have to remember what's a command and what's a function.

You can also write your own commands. Here's a simple example that returns a pair of lines entered by the user:

get2Lines = do    line1 <- getLine    line2 <- getLine    return (line1,line2)main = do    (a,b) <- get2Lines    print ("You typed " ++ a ++ " then " ++ b ++ ".")

Note how we used <- instead of let to get the result of getLine. We also did the same to get the result of get2Lines. But notice one extra feature: we had to use return to return a value out of a do block.

So that's pretty much it. Here are the rules:

1. To introduce a list of commands, use do.
2. To return a value from a command, use return.
3. To assign a name to an expression inside a do block use let.
4. To assign a name to the result of a command, use <-.

So how do you know what's a command and what's an expression? If it has any chance of doing I/O it must be a command, otherwise it's probably an expression. But you can do silly things like:
f x = do    return [x,x]main = do    x <- f 10    print x

so occasionally there will be commands that don't do any IO. But not the other way round.

### Types

Everything in Haskell has a type, even commands. In general, if a command returns a value of type a then the command itself is of type IO a. It just has an IO wrapped around the return type. For example, getLine is of type IO String and f above is of type a -> IO [a]. Apart from that extra IO it's like ordinary expression types. But note that if you have a bit of code like
main = do    print (getLine)

you get a type error. This is because you must use <- to extract the input string from the getLine command. Because getLine has type IO String instead of type String the compiler can catch these kinds of mistakes. Giving commands and expressions different types means we can't accidentally mix them up.

At this point you might have realised that if
f x = do    return xmain = do    x <- f 5    print x

is legal, then this might be legal too:
main = do    x <- return 1    print x

It is. return is simply a function of type a -> IO a that converts a value of type a to a command of type IO a.

You can also rewrite this
inputWithPrompt = do    print "Hello, enter a line"    x <- getLine    return x

with
inputWithPrompt = do    print "Hello, enter a line"    getLine

In the first version we extracted x from getLine and then converted this value back into another command with return. In the second version we took a shortcut and simply ended with getLine. So we probably ought to add one more rule

5. The type of a sequence of commands is the type of the last line.

getLine already has the type of a command that returns a string so we can just make it the last line. But use the former version if you find this confusing, and then you only need four rules.

There's one last thing that confuses people. The type of an if statement is the type of its branches. So if you want an if statement inside a do block, it needs to be a command, and so its branches need to be commands also. So it's
main = do    if 2/=1        then do            print "2/=1"            print "Cool"        else do            print "2==1"            print "Not cool"

not
main = do    if 2/=1        then            print "2/=1"            print "Cool"        else            print "2==1"            print "Not cool"

Oh and a little tip. If the do block has just one command, you can drop the do. So this compiles:
main = do    if 2/=1        then            print "2/=1"        else            print "2==1"

### Why make the command/expression distinction at all?

You don't care, or you wouldn't be reading this. But suppose you did. Then I'd say: Firstly, let's state clearly what this distinction is. If something is of type IO a then it's a command returning an value of type a. Otherwise it's an expression. That's the rule. So here's the important bit: following the rules above it's completely impossible to put an executed command inside an expression. As the only way to do I/O is with commands, that means you have no way to find out what Haskell is doing inside expressions. And that's the whole point! Haskell likes to keep its evaluation secret from you and doesn't want you outputting information that might give away what's going on. For example, if (print 1)+(print 2) were legal Haskell, and it printed 1, followed by 2, then you'd know that it evaluated the left argument to + first, and then the second. Haskell doesn't want to reveal this because it wants the freedom to rearrange your code internally without changing its behaviour. And this makes things easier for you too. When you see a+b you know its exactly the same as b+a, whereas in C++, say, you have to worry about whether a and b have side effects. If the type isn't IO a, then you can sleep at night in the confidence that there are no side effects.

(Do you see why you can't sneak a command into an expression? It's quite neat. To make an expression out of a command you'd need to do something like extract a return value out of a command. But to do that you need to use <- to extract the value of the command. But you can only use <- inside a do block. So the result has to be a command. Once you're in a command, there's no way out!)

### It's all lies I tell you!

One last thing. Much of what I've said above is false. But what I hope I have done is describe a subset of Haskell in which you can start some I/O programming without having a clue what a monad is. Once you're successfully bootstrapped, then you'll be ready for the truth. No more of that "monads are too hard" defense.

PS You can think of the above as using taint as a way to sequester commands from other expressions.

Back to E8 this weekend...

Conal said...

Hm. I think the "command/expression distinction" is a confusion of semantics & syntax. I'd say that Haskell "expressions" are used consistently to denote a wide variety of (immutable) values, from booleans & numbers to streams & trees to imagery & animation, to "commands" (aka "computations", "stateful computations", "actions", "commands", IO values) & beyond. All are denoted (expressed) via expressions, and all are immutable values. The only essential difference between IO and, say, list is that the semantic interpretation we give IO is much more complicated (intractably so) than the one we give lists.

I also have a quibble with the common practice of referring to IO as "the IO monad". Monadness is no more essential to the IO type (constructor) than to list. Bringing in monads is just a convenient structuring technique. The idea of capturing imperative computations in a type of (immutable) values is lovely. And so is the general pattern we call "monad". I'm worried that people won't understand that these lovely ideas can be used separately, and that (like infinite lists), they happen to be usable together.

sigfpe said...

I can't say I disagree with you that much.

I'm just trying to provide some rules of thumb in an attempt to attract people who might otherwise be put of Haskell. In a sense I've described a subset of Haskell where commands and expressions really are syntactically distinct - I think I've sketched out a portion of a grammar where commands and expressions can't be freely mixed. Later on, I'd hope that programmers would realise that commands really are just expressions.

> Monadness is no more essential to the IO type (constructor) than to list.

I entirely agree. My intention is to show that despite the fact that IO is called "the IO monad", it really isn't scray at all. That's why I try not to talk about monads later.

iPorsut said...

I agree with sigfpe.

Your article easy understand for people who might otherwise be put of Haskell.

Mikael said...

You say that we can drop do in some contexts, and give an example, but the example doesn't drop the do.

dh said...

Hey, I like your explanation of the use of the IO monad very much. I think this is the kind of text we need much more in computer science: "lying a bit" to convey notions, ideas, conceptions, patterns of use in a simple, easy to grasp manner. It's a powerful technique to prepare the path to the full truth.

Dominikus

jeff said...

Good post and covers the basics well.

But then the next question that always comes up is how to do IO down in an function (in an expression) down a ways in the code. This often involves rewriting those "expressions" into "commands". (Certainly unsafeperformio is always lurking around.) Explaining why this needs to happen (and then explaining how) can be quite difficult - especially to people brought up on C, Java and the like where this is easy.

sigfpe said...

mikael,

Actually, I dropped the inner 'do's. But you've probably spotted that I could have dropped the outer 'do' to.

Aaron Denney said...

So, one thing left out with this analogy is that commands can either be used as expressions or, for lack of a better word, "executed". In do blocks, they're executed (or rather, the do block defines a new command that, when executed, executes the commands, etc.). But they can also be stuffed in lists, etc.

In some ways, thinking of it as an "inside out" imperative language (do notation) with a super-gonzo extended macro language that puts some stuff off until runtime (normal expressions) isn't too far off.

Mark said...

scray?

sigfpe said...

mark,

It took me a while to remember what I meant by scray. That's pretty scray in itself. :-)

Greg said...

If you had to build all your lists using do notation, you probably would call it "the List Monad".

Deep Thought said...

let x = 1+2+3+4+5+6
print (2*x)

Tim said...

Loved it! I'd read it again and again!
My only quibble is in the description of "return" as "returning" a result. The word "return" has a very specific and very different meaning to imperative programmers and is an easy place to get in trouble. I think its always worth going out of the way to say that "return" does not affect control flow.

sigfpe said...

Hey Tim,

You're absolutely right about "return", it could be misleading. For example, imperative programmers might be surprised about the result of:

main = do
return 1
print "Hello"

I guess one (bizarre) way to look at it is that "return" is actually returning its value to the next statement, but that would need some qualification to make it precise.

But the easiest fix for now is to change rule 2 to "To return a value from the end of a do-block, use return."

Anonymous said...

Can't thank you enough for the article. Finally, a practical example of Monad that covers the necessary details.

wildgoose said...

I have never understood why the word "return" was chosen - it just lends itself to too much confusion and ambiguity for programmers arriving from imperative languages.

I wonder why something like "wrap" wasn't acceptable?

Raoul Duke said...

yeah, if you are coming from the pool of most programmers then the names chosen for the operations required to be a monad do, verily, confuse at first :-)